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Endodontic Procedures

Tooth Anatomy

An individual tooth is a unique structure consisting of several components with varying characteristics and functions. The center of the tooth consists of a soft dental pulp tissue encompassed in mineralised tissue dentine. The root of the tooth anchors itself to the alveolar bone via the periodontal ligament which inserts itself into the cementum. Cementum is a thin layer of mineralised tissue that covers the entire root dentine surface. Enamel provides a protective cap for the vital tissues of dentine and the pulp. Enamel is hard and durable for the functions of the teeth. However, dental pulp are susceptible to damage from trauma, bacteria and high acidic diets. Inflammation or infection can result leading to the tooth needing root canal treatment.

Symptoms of tooth with pulp disease or damage may include

  • Spontaneous pain with no reason
  • Sensitivity to hot and cold food
  • Pain when biting or chewing
  • Loose tooth
  • Swelling of the gum near the affected tooth
  • Drainage of pus near the affected tooth
  • Facial swelling

Often, a tooth's pulp might become infected or damaged with no symptoms. In these cases, the diseased tooth is diagnosed by special tests or from radiographs during a dental check up or treatment for other dental concerns.

If you experience any of these symptoms, your dentist will recommend root canal treatment to deal with the diseased dental pulp. The pulp is removed and the root canal system is cleaned and sealed. The treatment is carried out under local anaesthesia in most cases. Success rate of root canal treatment is greater than 90%. However, if the prognosis is not favourable, you will be informed at the consultation or when a complication becomes noticeable during or after treatment.


  • Generally, the typical root canal treatment includes:
  • Local anaesthetic to reduce any discomfort from the procedure
  • Placement of rubber dam to isolate the offending tooth and to prevent contamination of the root canals
  • Dental pulp and its remnants are removed
  • Very fine instruments used to clean and shape the root canal system
  • Root canal systems are flushed with disinfectant solutions
  • Once the root canal system is deemed to be free of infection, a root canal filling is placed into the prepared root canal space

Post treatment

When your treatment is finished, a record will be sent to your general dentist. The general dentist will carry out the follow up restoration.

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